HABITATS AND SPECIES
Monitoring flora and fauna
Iberdrola takes various actions to prevent or restore areas that may be affected by its facilities in the principal countries in which it operates.
In order to protect species and habitats or mitigate damage over themselves, and based on the needs of each project, Iberdrola performs monitoring of flora and fauna (especially protected or vulnerable species), forest treatments, forestry restoration with indigenous plants, landscape integration and accommodation, etc.
These activities are carried out over the entire life cycle of the project, adapting the actions to be taken during the construction, operation, and decommissioning phases.
BIODIVERSITY OF OFFSET HABITATS
Prior to the construction of new facilities, environmental studies are conducted to collect environment characteristics and possible impacts thereon, with the subsequent implementation of the required corrective measures identified in the various environmental studies. Offset areas are intended to improve conservation status and the biodiversity of species and habitats with respect to the areas affected by the presence of the Group's facilities. In addition, various activities are performed to improve biodiversity, as described in the Biodiversity Reports and in indicator G4-EU13 of the Sustainability Report.
Below are some of the habitats that are being offset, the majority of the projects already commenced and being continued during 2016:
TECHNOLOGY ACTIONS RESULTS Beautiful Denny (substation) Recovery of 190 ha of peat bogs, in collaboration with various local Stakeholders. Improvement of the state of wetlands, coastal grasslands and areas with forests and shrubbery. Acquisition of a carbon sink, retention of water, and improvement of habitats. Damhead Creek (combined cycle) Performance of surveys and presentation of results, successfully concluding the work of cleaning the canal and restoring areas. Improvement of the state of wetlands, coastal grasslands and areas with forests and shrubbery. Creation of a suitable habitat for the water vole. Galloway (hydroelectric) Installation of antennae at the Loch Doon fishing port to monitor the migration of tagged Atlantic salmon. Elimination of potential obstacles to promote, among other phenomena, the migration of Atlantic salmon and other species. Study of interference with the passage of ichthyofauna using Balck Water of Dee (GIS mapping, electrofishing, monitoring habitats, etc.) Cruachan (hydroelectric) Continuation of study of habitat and of fauna via installation of photo-trap cameras. Special surveillance of the pine marten (Martes martes). Discovery of the envionment and spreading knowledge to the local population, collaboration with NGOs. Wind farms Implementation of Habitat Management Plans in adjacent areas. Improvement of adjacent habitats.
TECHNOLOGY ACTIONS RESULTS Power lines and substations Conditioning of power lines Minimisation of the impact on the nesting and reproductive processes of the osprey. Continuation with the identification of habitats (under the lines) suitable for the New England cottontail (Sylvilagus transitionalis). Work carried out in collaboration with the US Fish and Wildlife Service. Promotion of the recovery of this species in decline. Study and analysis in collaboration with the Wildlife Division and US Fish & Wildlife to mitigate the impact on protected species like the North American bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) and the long-eared bat (Myotis septentrionalis), through the recovery of habitats. Improvement of adjacent habitats and protection of associated fauna. Promotion of the recovery of species in decline. Development of a “Comprehensive vegetation management” programme; use of lighter vehicles in forest areas, etc. Improvement of adjacent habitats and protection of associated fauna. Wind farms Monitoring and maintenance of habitats (grasslands, meadows, wetlands, deserts, etc.) within and around the area thereof. Improvement of adjacent habitats and protection of associated fauna.
TECHNOLOGY ACTIONS RESULTS Goiás Sul (hydroelectric) Reforestation of 100 ha with indigenous species, and maintenance of 180 ha. A space with a high ecological value has been achieved. Recovery of degraded areas. Corumbá (hydroelectric) Planting of 231,313 seedlings, introducing 45 indigenous species. Recovery of degraded areas. Dardanelos (hydroelectric) Development of a plan to recover areas degraded as a result of the installation of temporary structures. Recovery of degraded areas. Power lines Planting of native species in the corridor of the lines, totalling 30 ha, which equated to 50,700 seedlings. Recovery of degraded areas. Termopernambuco (Combined Cycle) Environmental monitoring (wastewater, solid waste or air emissions which are made in the power plant by a "Social Environmental Management Plan - Patagonia Gold"; monitoring of flora and fauna, both in making seawater, and the provision in the outfall area. Minimisation of the impact on the biodiversity and ecosystem services.
PROTECTED OR RESTORED HABITATS
Iberdrola carries out different actions, with the purpose of protecting or restoring the different habitats in its environment or those affected by the installations and facilities of the group. These are generic actions, which are still active in 2016 are also included in the action plans. Some of the most important actions are described below:
- During the construction in recent years of two significant hydroelectric projects, La Muela II and the expansion of San Esteban, an Environmental Monitoring Plan has been implemented at each facility. This includes various actions, such as, for example, at la Muela II, a vegetation and forestry restoration of affected areas with indigenous plants; restoration and recovery of an old quarry and rubbish dump, etc monitoring of the loss of habitat and fauna, etc. There has been continued implementation of the Improvement Plan (Plan Mejora) biodiversity project, which includes the dismantling of abandoned structures and buildings and the subsequent restoration of the environment.
- In 2016, 44 environmental actions were implemented in Spain before and during the construction of electrical substations and lines. Advance studies performed deal with the affect on the Nature 2000 Network, flora and vegetation, nesting by birds of prey, landscape integration and accommodation, etc. During construction, land was restored and prepared, vegetation and birds were protected, invasive species were controlled, etc.
- ScottishPower continues with Biodiversity Action Plans at each facility to recover and promote the regeneration of the natural habitats, fauna, and flora characteristic of the environment of the facilities. More information is available at www.spenergywholesale.com.
- ScottishPower Renewables continues restoring habitats included in the Habitat management plans implemented in wind farms.
- Avangrid Renewables continued in 2016 developing plans for managing and monitoring habitat at the wind farms Manzana, Big Horn, Barton Chapel, Barton, Blue Creek, Buffalo Ridge I MinnDakota, Dry Lakes I/II, Groton, Hardscrabble, Juniper Canyon, Klondike III/IIIa ,Leaning Juniper II, South Chestnut among others with good results. In addition, there is work underway to eliminate an invasive herbaceous species at Klondike II and work is continuing on the restoration of wetlands near the Hoosack wind farm. In Blue Creek wind farm, additional plantings have been made in those areas where restoration wasn't satisfactory.
- At the affiliated Brazilian hydroelectric plants, there has been a continuation of programmes for the recovery and offset of Permanent Conservation Areas (APPs) and degraded areas (quarries, dumps), mainly through reforestation. Various environmental programmes for conserving biodiversity are also performed annually based on the impacts caused by their operation: monitoring fauna (icthyofauna, herpetofauna, mastofauna, avifauna, entomofauna, etc.), monitoring flora in reforested areas, monitoring water quality, monitoring erosive processes, etc.
Iberdrola Mexico participates in an ambitious project for the recovery of the Estero Garrapatas swamp, with the collaboration of the Autonomous University of Tamaulipas and the port authorities of Altamira. The swamp was affected by the reduction in the water supply after the construction of a gas pipeline and the Company has been actively participating in the restoration and recovery of the ecosystem since 2002. See the awarded video.
- In Mexico, are important activities in the La Ventosa wind farm, which has tracked the reforestation carried out during construction and wind farm La Venta III that have taken steps to implement the reforestation of an area of 19 has. In addition, the line La Venta III is in process to run reforest an area of 25.56 ha.
- In the wind farms of the Group, where has been necessary recover land affected by construction activities, performing revegetation and silvicultural treatments among other actions have been developed.
SPECIES INCLUDED ON THE IUCN RED LIST AND ON NATIONAL LISTINGS AFFECTED BY FACILITIES
The group is active in certain areas that are or may be inhabited by threatened species included in the UICN (International Union for the Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources) Red List and other national listings such as the UK BAP (UK Biodiversity Action Plan), the USFW (US Fish & Wildlife Services) and the Sao Paolo list of threatened species, without such activities entailing a negative impact or threat.
UICN Red List Classification No. of species Critically endangered (CR) 24 Endangered (EN) 58 Vulnerable (VU) 122 Near threatened (NT) 26 Least concern (LC) 198
Species appearing as not evaluated by the IUCN appear as threatened in the specific lists of each country.
Some of the species are:
- Critically endangered: Birds such as California Condor, Eskimo Curlew, Lear's Macaw, Channel-billed Toucan; mammals as Iberian Lynx, Northern Muriqui, Blond Titi Monkey; fish as European Eel, etc.
- In danger of extinction: Birds such as the Iberian Imperial Eagle, the Red Kite, the Black Stork, the Egyptian Vulture, the Cantabrian Capercaillie, and the Squacco Heron, and Chiroptera such as the long-fingered Bat, the Indiana Bat; insects such as the Ground Beetle.
- Vulnerable: Birds such as Bonelli's Eagle, the Osprey, Montagu's harrier, Pink-faced Parrot, Araponga; Chiroptera such as Geoffroy's Bat, Mehely's horseshoe Bat, the Lesser mouse-eared Bat or Cave Bat, and the Noctule Bat; insects such as the Diving Beetle, the Canary Islands hairy Blowfly, and River jelly Lichen.
Furthermore, at the properties of the generating centers in the United Kingdom, a total of 28 birds included in the UK BAP (half of the 56 species on the high-priority list) have been noted hibernating or breeding. Nine mammal species, seven fish species, five reptile species, two amphibian species, eight butterfly and moth species, another four invertebrate species, a lichen species, and seven plant species, all of them included in the UK BAP, also live on these lands.