OCCUPATION OF PROTECTED AREAS
Broken down by facility and types of space
One of the main criteria in the decision-making when choosing an area for locating a new infrastructure is to avoid areas with any kind of protection.
The presence of around 23,000 km of electrical distribution lines and 22,500 ha of power generation facilities in protected areas involve direct interaction with several habitats, such as temperate heaths and scrubland, sclerophyll forest, natural and semi-natural grass formations, high peatlands, fens and mires and swampy areas, forests, etc. It also involves interaction with species such as the Iberian imperial eagle, red kite, hen harrier or wood grouse, for example. Amongst the activities carried out within the Iberdrola group, the infrastructure that takes up most land are reservoirs, the power line layout and wind farms.
The presence of reservoirs in protected spaces is 68.1% of the total space occupied by reservoirs. Within biosphere reserves, national parks, Ramsar wetlands and natural parks, these reservoirs take up 1.15% of the surface area of these protected areas.
The Cofrentes Nuclear Plant is located within the Natura 2000 Network. The protected areas are the LIC: Muela de Cortes and Croig and SPA: Sierra de Martés - Muela de Cortes.
In the case of the wind farms, the company operates in territories included in the Natura 2000 network. Of the 23,120,967 ha of the Natura network in Spain, the wind farms occupy 139.14 ha, or 0.0006%. This reflects the small surface area occupied by wind farms in the network. This is because the wind farms were built subsequently to the declaration of protected areas at the national or regional level, and this circumstance has restricted project development in these areas. Over the last few years the surface area of the facilities in protected areas have not been extended.
ScottishPower has major properties in 12 production centres in Scotland and England, from the highlands of Ben Cruachan to the marshlands of Damhead. Many of the centres are located within or close to areas unknown for their importance for biodiversity and have obtained legal protection for their habitats and species. It is estimated that 41% of the land associated with thermal and hydro power plants lies within protected areas. This includes three Ramsar designations, five special protection areas, three special areas of conservation and thirteen sites of special scientific interest. Especially important is the Galloway hydroelectric complex, exposed to 11 protected areas, a reflection of the wide surface area it covers in the south west of Scotland.
In the Renewable Energies Business there are two wind farms in Scotland adjacent to the Natura 2000 network, Clachan Flats and Arecleoch. In England, the refurbished Carland Cross wind farm is located next to an SAC area and an SSSI area. Most of the wind farms in the United Kingdom are within peatland habitat and 13 have management plans for these kinds of habitats that are included within the priority habitats listed in the UK's Biodiversity Action Plan and in appendix 1 of the EU's Habitats Directive. The Lynemouth wind farm in England is located in an area of high biodiversity, since it is a wintering grounds for anatidae (swans and geese).
There are no wind farms in protected environments. The length of the high voltage power lines (115 kV or more) operated by our subsidiaries NYSEG, RG&G and CMP is 5,832 kilometres, of which 7% lie next to or cross protected areas (402 km). Of these, NYSEG has a total of 3,529 km of transmission lines of 115 kV or more. Approximately 382 km (12%) of these are adjacent to or cross protected areas with high biodiversity. These areas include the State of New York Adirondack Park and Forest Preserve (72 km), the State of New York Catskill Park and Forest Preserve (57 km) and Champlain - Adirondack (210 km). The CMP subsidiary has a total of 1,900 km of transmission lines of 115 kV or more. Approximately 18 km (1%) of these are adjacent to or cross protected areas. The RG&E subsidiary has a total of 403 km of 115 kV or more transmission lines. Approximately 2.1 km (0.52%) of these are adjacent to or cross protected areas with high biodiversity. The only protected area crossed by these power lines is NYS Letchworth Park.
|Facility||Location with respect to the protected area||Affected Surface/Length||Degree of protection(1)|
|Reservoirs||Domestic||18,972 ha||Biosphere reserves, Ramsar Wetlands, Natura 2000 network, national parks and natural parks|
|Power lines||Domestic||19,314 km||Natura 2000 network, Ramsar Wetlands, National Park, Natural Park, Biosphere Reserves|
|Substations||Domestic||144 installations||Natura 2000 network, Ramsar Wetlands, National Park, Natural Park, Biosphere Reserves|
|Transformer stations||Domestic||8,793 stations||Natura 2000 network, Ramsar Wetlands, National Park, Natural Park, Biosphere Reserves|
|Wind farms||Domestic||139 ha||Natura 2000 network|
|Thermal and hydro power plants||Inside or near||3,264 ha (12 production centres)||Ramsar wetlands, SPA, SAC and SSSI|
|Power lines||Domestic||3,677 km||NSA, SPA, SAC, Ramsar, NNR, SSSI|
|Substations||Domestic||367 units||NSA, SPA, SAC, Ramsar, NNR, SSSI|
|Transformer stations||Domestic||8,608 units||NSA, SPA, SAC, Ramsar, NNR, SSSI|
|Wind farms||Adjacent||3 ha||Natura 2000 network and SAC, SSSI|
|Wind farms||Partially inside||9,321 ha||Natura 2000 network and SAC, SSSI|
|Wind farms||Inside or near||0||Protected areas designated by each Federal State, which may be Biosphere Reserves, forests, national parks, national wildlife refuges and those that have a high ecological value without having such protection.|
|Power lines||Partially inside||392 km|
|Power lines||Domestic||1,881 km||Areas of environmental protection|
|Substations||Domestic||19 installations||Areas of environmental protection|
|Transformer stations||Domestic||4,388 stations||Areas of environmental protection|
|Hydroelectric power plants||Inside or near||293 ha||Areas protected by Brazilian legislation|
|Generation plant||Adjacent||1 Production centre||Areas of environmental protection|
|Wind farms||Adjacent||1 wind farm||Areas of environmental protection|
|Wind farms||Adjacent||1 wind farm||Natura 2000 network|
|Wind farms||Inside or near||2 wind farms||Close to areas of the Natura 2000 network, one included within a National Park|
|Wind farms||Inside or near||1 wind farm||Close to areas of the Natura 2000 network, one included within a National Park|
|Wind farms||Upcoming||1 wind farm||Close to areas of the Natura 2000 network, one included within a National Park|
(1) Designations of the main protected areas:
SPA: Special Protection Area for Birds, according to the EC Birds Directive.
SCI: Site of Community Importance, according to the EC Habitats Directive.
SAC: Special Area of Conservation, according to the EC Habitats Directive.
Ramsar: Wetlands of international importance, according to the Convention signed in Ramsar.
SSSI: Site of special scientific interest (UK designation).
NSA: National scenic areas.
NNR: National nature reserve.