OCCUPATION OF PROTECTED AREAS
Breakdown by facility and type of space
Within the activities of the Group, the infrastructure occupying the largest part of the territory are dams, electrical power lines, and wind farms. One of the main criteria in decision making to select an area for the location of a new infrastructure is to avoid any space with some type of protection. Any infrastructure inside a protected area is usually prior to the declarations of protection.
The presence of dams in protected areas represents 68.1% of the total surface area in which the dams are located. Within the biosphere reserves, national parks, Ramsarwetlands, and natural parks, these dams represent 1.15% of the surface area of these protected areas.
The Cofrentes nuclear plant is located within the Nature 2000 Network. The protected areas are the Muela de Cortes and el Croig SCIs and the Sierra de Martés - Muela de Cortes SPA.
In the case of wind farms within the environmental boundary, the Company operates in territories included within the Natura 2000 Network. Of the 23,120,967 hectares of the Natura 2000 Network located in Spain, the wind farms occupy 139.14 hectares of the Network, or 0.0006%.
This reflects the slight superficial impact of the wind farms on the Network. This is because the construction of the wind farms postdates the space protection declarations at the state or autonomous community level, which condition constitutes a restriction on the development of projects in these areas. During the last years, there was no increase in the surface area of facilities in protected areas.
ScottisPower, has significant properties in 12 production centers in Scotland and England, from the uplands of Ben Cruachan to the coastal reedbeds at Damhead Creek. Many of these sites are located in or near areas recognized as important to biodiversity and afforded statutory protection for their habitats and species, an estimated 41% of the land associated with thermal generation plants and hydroelectric plants, is located in protected areas. They include three Ramsar designations, five Special Protection Areas, three Special Areas of Conservation, and thirteen sites of Special Scientific Interest. Of particular importance is the Galloway hydroelectric scheme, which is exposed to eleven protected sites, a reflection of the substantial area it covers in southeastern Scotland.
Within the Renewables Business, there are two wind farms in Scotland bordering the Nature 2000 Network, Clachan Flats and Arecleoch. In England, Carland Cross windfarm repowering is situated adjacent to an SAC and SSSI. Another eight wind farms (Arecleoch, Whitelee, Black Law, Beinn an Tuirc, Beinn Tharsuin, Clachan Flats, Cruach Mhor, Mark Hill) are located partially within covered peat bogs, a habitat that is included in the UK Priority Biodiversity Action Plan and in Annex 1 of the EU Habitats Directive. Lynemouth windfarm in England is also located in an area of high biodiversity due to its importance for overwintering swans and geese.
High voltage lines (115 kV or higher) of the NYSEG, RG&E and CMP subsidiaries cover a length of 5,832 kilometres, 7 % (402 km). NYSEG has a total of 3,529 km of transmission lines equal to or greater than 115 kV. Approximately 382 km (12 % ) of these are adjacent or cross protected areas of high biodiversity value. These areas include New York State Adirondack Park and Forest Reserve (72 km), New York State Catskill Park and Forest Reserve (57 km) and Biosphere Reserve UN Champlain - Adirondack (210 km). CMP has a total of 1,900 km of transmission lines equal to or greater than 115 kV. About 18 km (1%) of these, are adjacent or high through areas protected. The RG& E subsidiary has a total of 403 km of transmission lines equal to or greater than 115 kV, approximately 2.1 km ( 0.52 % ) of these are adjacent or crossing protected areas (Letchworth Park) with high biodiversity value.
In the networks business in Brazil, 24 of 228 â€‹â€‹Municipalities in the concession area of Elektro are consideratd areas of high biodiversity value, representing 10%. According to the Ministry of Environment, the Cerrado is the second largest biome in South America, considered to overall biodiversity hotspots, with extreme abundance of endemic species, which occupies an area of 2,036,448 km2, approximately 22% of the country.
In Hungary there are only two protected areas near by wind farms, Kisigmand and Ikervár.