OCCUPATION OF PROTECTED AREAS

Itemised by facility and types of space

The areas where Iberdrola operates are also home to numerous wild animals and plants, some of which are officially protected.

Knowing in which protected areas and places rich in biodiversity the group operates is key to correct managements of its activities, analysing their potential impact to adopt mitigation measures or implement restoration and conservation projects.

Iberdrola's commitment to the protection and conservation of these areas follows the principles set out in its Biodiversity Policy, through its environmental management systems, action plans and monitoring of habitats restored and/or compensated following the positive conservation management principle.

 SPAIN

The presence of reservoirs in protected spaces is 63% of the total space occupied by reservoirs. Within biosphere reserves, national parks, Ramsar wetlands and natural parks, these reservoirs take up 1.15% of the surface area of these protected areas.

The Cofrentes Nuclear Plant is located within the Natura 2000 Network. The protected areas are the SCI: Muela de Cortés and the Caroig, and the SPA: Sierra de Martés - Muela de Cortés.

In the case of wind farms, only 8% of our wind farms are in protected nature areas, mainly in the Natura 2000 Network occupying just 0.000016% of the Network total.

 List of facilities and location in relation to protected areas or areas of high biodiversity value [PDF]

 Reservoirs in protected spaces [PDF]

 UNITED KINGDOM

ScottishPower does not have onshore wind farms in protected areas.

ScottishPower Renewables operates some of its 23 wind farms on the fens; a habitat included in the United Kingdom Biodiversity Action Plan for priority species and in Annex 1 of the European Union habitats directive.

The Lynemouth wind farm in England is also in an area with rich biodiversity, due to its importance as a winter haven for swans and geese.

In Ireland, the Barnesmore wind farm is on the Barnesmore Bog Natural Heritage Site (CNS).

ScottishPower Renewables has committed to restoring more than 8,000 ha of fens in all wind farms, by implementing Habitat Management Plans (HMP). Approximately 580 ha of native forest (a habitat included in the United Kingdom Biodiversity Action Plan for priority species) is already being established at 17 farms.

The East Anglia ONE offshore wind farm is in a special South North Sea Special Conservation Area (SNS SAC). Approximately 200 km2 of the East Anglia One project lie within the southern part of the SNS SAC (winter component) designated to protect porpoises, which accounts for 0.5% of the total area designated for the SNS SAC. The area was formally designated in 2019 after the construction of East Anglia ONE began in 2018. The export cable corridor, the East Anglia ONE Offshore Wind Farm, crosses the Outer Thames Estuary Special Protected Area (SPA) which supports a winter population of red throat divers, which is sensitive to disturbance and displacement from the boat. The export cable corridor crosses the Bawdsey Cliffs SSSI, which is of great geological interest and has potential for studies of Pleistocene non-glacial environments. The SSSI is by far the largest site for Red Crag and is rich in marine molluscs.

 List of facilities and location in relation to protected areas [PDF]

 USA

Only one of the 64 onshore wind farms (2%) is located within a protected area with high biodiversity. This is the Deerfield Wind Project, which covers approximately 32 hectares within the Green Mountain National Forest in Bennington County, Vermont. Deerfield was the first wind project to be authorised and built on National Forest land. The main authorising agency is the National Forest Service.

A total of 404 km of transmission lines (3%) and 15 substations lie within protected areas with high biodiversity. These areas include New York State's Adirondack Park and Forest Reserve, New York State's Catskill Park and Forest Reserve, Letchwork Park, the United Nations' Champlain-Adirondack Biosphere Reserve, and Connecticut West Rock State Park.

Avangrid Networks also operates and maintains nine hydroelectric projects, two of which are located within New York State's Adirondack Park.

List of facilities and their locations in relation to protected nature areas or areas of high biodiversity value
Facility Location with respect to the protected area Affected Surface/Length Degree of protection(1)
Spain      
Reservoirs Inside, or partialy inside 30,759 ha
 
Biosphere reserves, Ramsar Wetlands, Natura 2000 network, national parks and Nature Parks
Power lines Inside 18,777 km Natura 2000 network, Ramsar Wetlands, National Park, Nature Park, Biosphere Reserves
Substations Inside 135 installations Natura 2000 network, Ramsar Wetlands, National Park, Nature Park, Biosphere Reserves
Transformer stations Inside 8,654 stations Natura 2000 network, Ramsar Wetlands, National Park, Nature Park, Biosphere Reserves
Wind farms Inside 343 ha Natura 2000 network, nature areas and important areas for birds and diversity
Nuclear power plants Inside 115 ha (1 plant) Natura 2000 network
Adjacent 3 plants Natura 2000 network
Thermal power plants(2) Adjacent 12 plants Natura 2000 network, protected landscapes, biosphere reserves and protected marine areas
       
United Kingdom      
Power lines Inside 3,815 km NSA, SPA, SAC, Ramsar, NNR, SSSI
Substations Inside 414 units NSA, SPA, SAC, Ramsar, NNR, SSSI
Transformer stations Inside 8,881 units NSA, SPA, SAC, Ramsar, NNR, SSSI
Offshore wind farms Inside 36,700 ha Natura 2000 network and SAC, SSSI
Onshore wind farms Partially inside 9,035 ha SSSI
       
United States      
Wind farms Inside or near 32 National Forest Systems
Power lines Partially inside 404 km Protected areas designated by each federal state, which may be Biosphere Reserves, forests, national parks, national fauna refuges and those which are not covered by such protection but nevertheless have high ecological value
Substations Inside 15 Protected areas designated by each federal state, which may be Biosphere Reserves, forests, national parks, national fauna refuges and those which are not covered by such protection but nevertheless have high ecological value
Hydraulic Power Stations   2 Protected areas designated by the State of New York like the Adirondack Park
       
Brazil      
Power lines Inside 27,199 Km Areas of environmental protection
Substations Inside 96 installations Areas of environmental protection
Transformer stations Inside 4,388 stations Areas of environmental protection
Hydroelectric power plants Adjacent   Private Natural Park Reserve (RPPN), Biosphere Reserve declared by UNESCO, important areas for birdlife and biodiversity (IBA), High biodiversity Wild areas (HBWA), Wildlife Refuge (Revis), Sustainable Development Reserve (SDR)
       
Mexico      
Generation plant Adjacent 1 Production centre Areas of environmental protection
Wind farms Adjacent 1 wind farm Regional Ecological Park
       
Greece      
Wind farms and photovoltaic plants Partially inside 129 ha Natura 2000 network
       
Hungary      
Wind farms Near 6 wind farms Close to areas of the Natura 2000 network, one included within a National Park
       
Portugal      
Wind farms Inside or near 0.12 wind farm Natura 2000 network area, and a National Park
       
Romania      
Wind farms Adjacent 1 wind farm Natura 2000 network
Germany      
Marine wind farms Adjacent 1 wind farm Special Protection Marine Area
       

 

(1) Designations of the main protected areas:

SPA: Special Protection Area for Birds, according to the EC Birds Directive.

SCI: Site of Community Importance, according to the EC Habitats Directive.

SAC: Special Area of Conservation, according to the EC Habitats Directive.

Ramsar: Wetlands of international importance, according to the Convention signed in Ramsar.

SSSI: Site of special scientific interest (UK designation).

NSA: National scenic areas (UK).

NNR: National nature reserve (UK).

(2) Combined cycle, cogeneration, and coal-fired plants.

 

Iberdrola identifies endangered species included in the UICN Red List and the national and regional lists for the areas in which it operates through its environmental management systems and/or observation programs.